The development of the preimplantation embryo and fetal and postnatal phenotype are programmed by developmental conditions during the early embryogenesis (metabolic programming). Thus, prenatal development and metabolic factors predispose for pathophysiological alterations later in life and pioneer functional impairment in senescence. The mechanisms of metabolic programming were studied by analyzing the impact of glucose on pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Long-term effects were analyzed by stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes and adipocytes. The developmental impact of a short-time metabolic stress during embryonic stem cell determination was elucidated by investigating gene expression, functionality of differentiated cells and epigenetic modifications like DNA methylation and expression patterns of microRNAs.