Most tropical montane forests are nowadays fragmented due to deforestation at vast spatial scales. Forest fragments are altered by edge effects from the surrounding deforested habitats, while forest recovery in deforested habitats is slow due to strong regeneration filters. Additionally, climate change is threatening tropical montane forest. Four studies were adopted to investigate the effects of fragmentation and filters to forest regeneration. Predictions of climate change effects based on an elevation gradient. Fragmentation and associated edge effects favored the dominance of disturbance-adapted species at forest edges. Hot and dry microclimates and missing seed sources were identified as main filters to forest regeneration. Increases in temperatures due to climate change will most likely exacerbate edge effects and regeneration filters.