Children with cancer admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) suffer from high morbidity and mortality. The clinical course of children with cancer admitted to the PICU in a university hospital is described. The survival at the end of intensive care treatment was correlated with basic data, reasons for admission, occurrence and number of organ system failure (OSF) and the Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score. Furthermore, the results of two consecutive treatment periods were compared. The PICU survival rate of patients admitted for life-threatening complications was similar to those in other reports. Poor outcome was associated with PICU admission >28 days after initial diagnosis, PRISM score > 10, OSF, OSF > 2 organ systems, and history of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The PICU survival rate of patients admitted 2006-2012 was higher than in the period 1998-2005. Children with cancer may benefit from intensive care. Early and aggressive treatment can reduce mortality. The role of pediatric intensive care units for pediatric oncology has increased.