Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. Data from association studies suggest a possible connection between low vitamin D status and a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of a genetically and an alimentary induced vitamin D deficiency on vascular changes and atherosclerotic processes with different mouse models. A genetically lack of the vitamin D receptor led to an increased calcification of the aortic root compared to wildtype mice. This was associated with a higher expression of osteogenic key factors Bmp-2, Msx2 and Runx2 and occurred independent of atherosclerotic processes. Also, LDLR-knockout and wildtype mice with an insufficient alimentary vitamin D supply showed a higher vascular calcification with an increased expression of Bmp-2, Msx2 and Runx2 compared to mice with an adequate vitamin D intake. A vitamin D administration after an existing deficiency had a reversible effect on calcification as well as on atherosclerosis-induced changes in the plaque composition.