This work presents an overview of the most common black silicon (b-Si) fabrication methods, their resulting morphologies, and simultaneously a quantitative comparison of their optoelectronic properties. The optical absorption and the surface recombination velocity (SRV) are used as benchmark parameters. It is shown that b-Si surfaces can be effectively passivated by conformal ALD-Al2O3 films. A model is proposed to differentiate between the contributions to the SRV of the surface area enhancement and the defect density enhancement due to black etching. Both factors must be minimized. However, the nanostructure morphology must be designed for optimal conjunction of anti-reflection (AR) and light trapping (LT) properties. Guidelines to optimize the relevant physical parameters, such as the correlation length, optimal height of the nanostructures, and the surface defect densities for optoelectronic applications are given. The ICP-RIE method yields extremely low SRV of Seff ≤ 7.8cm/s due to virtually damage-free b-Si surfaces that have defect densities comparable to planar references and even outperform alkaline textured substrates. A MACE nanocone structure exhibits the highest optical absorption of 98.5% of the theoretically possible 2n² limit of a bifacial Lambertian surface. Both b-Si types are highly interesting candidates for solar cell fabrication because of their high optical absorption and simultaneously low SRV. The findings of this work will enable the fabrication of high efficiency b-Si solar cells in the near future.