Monitoring renal function is crucial in children undergoing chemotherapy. To date, a combination of routine serum creatinine (SCR) monitoring with occasional determination of creatinine clearance ratio (CCR) is widely used as clinical standard for this purpose. Both methods have their limitations regarding diagnostic value (SCR) or practicability (CCR), especially in young children. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether serum cystatin C (CysC) may have a diagnostic impact on pediatric patients special in children under 3 Years CysC, SCR, several GFR estimation formulas (Counahan-Barratt, Ghazali-Barratt, Schwartz, Shull, Traub), and CCR were studied in 80 pediatric cancer patients Special attention was given to children under the age of 3. All parameters correlated similarly well with CCR. CysC represents a suitable marker for monitoring renal function in pediatric cancer patients. In young children (<3 years), CysC may have a better diagnostic value than SCR. Future studies should show if CysC can improve renal monitoring by replacing SCR, especially in very young children.