Previous studies only investigated some parts of etiologically relevant influencing psychosocial factors. 26 ALS patients assessed their current and premorbid personality (NEO-FFI), coping strategies (FKV), quality of life (SF-36) and depression (ADI-12). The patients differed significantly in the premorbid personality dimensions neuroticism(p < .05), extraversion (p < .01), agreeableness(p < .01) and conscientiousness(p < .001)from the healthy control group. Only neuroticism was significantly correlated with duration of disease (r = -.46, p< .05). Neuroticism showed a negative(r = -.56, p< .01) and conscientiousness a positive(r = .60, p< .01) influence on quality of life. Neuroticism was also significantly positive correlated with the passive-oriented coping strategies(r = .54, p< .01). Passive coping were positively or negatively associated with depression (r = .74, p< .001) and quality of life(r = -.61, p< .001). Depression was also a risk factor for low psychological well-being (B = - 1.07, b = -.66, p< .001). Neuroticism was an essential (negative) influential factor for psychosocial and disease-specific aspects in ALS patients.