The artificial phospholipids, which are described in this habilitation thesis, belong to the group of bolalipids. These lipids are composed of two polar headgroups connected by a long alkyl spacer. They originate in the membranes of Archaea, where they are responsible for the outstanding stability of the archaeal membranes against external influences, such as high temperature or low pH-values. Within the thesis, single- and double-chain as well as symmetrical and asymmetrical bolalipids were synthesized acting as model lipids of archaeal membrane lipids. Furthermore, the physicochemical behavior of these novel bolalipids in aqueous suspension and the miscibility of those with classical phospholipids were investigated. Lastly, the formation of hybrid materials consisting of an organic template and inorganic silicates was studied. The results significantly contribute to understand the complex relationship between the chemical structure of bolalipids and their aggregates found in water.