Colony vitality refers to the adaptability of a colony to a given environment at a given time and comprises both colony health and fitness. As the current decline of wild and managed honeybees has been linked to beekeeping, pathogens and the use of neonicotinoids, the aim of this thesis is to investigate their impacts on honeybee colony vitality. The first part of the thesis explores the influence of high colony density, generated by honeybee management, on virus prevalence, and the influence of pathogens on drifting, the major intracolonial transmission path in managed colonies, in an apiary base setting. Given the many detrimental effects of neonicotinoids on honeybees that have been reported, the second part of this thesis considers their impacts on both queen mating and social coherence. Since queen mating is paramount within-colony genetic diversity, and social coherence is crucial for colony functioning and maintenance, they both have major implications for colony vitality.