Yield improvement in barley involves the identification and mobilization of new alleles from locally adapted materials into elite germplasms. To achieve this, a collection of 261 two-rowed spring barley landraces of diverse origin were trialled for two years in IPK Gatersleben. Fourteen agronomic traits were measured with the purpose of identifying novel yield and yield-related QTL by using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. In total, 331 marker-trait associations (MTA) were identified for all 14 traits and grouped into 79 QTL spanning the entire barley genome. Most identified QTL coincide with genomic regions of known barley genes, e.g. photoperiodic gene Ppd-H1 (2H), earliness per se (CENTRORADIALIS) (2H), and waxy (7H) locus. In addition to the Nud locus (7H), which controls hull-caryopsis adherence, a novel QTL was identified on chromosome 3H that is specific for naked barley from Europe and Asia. The results highlight the importance of the current panel of barley landraces for novel QTL identification and could serve as a starting point for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for yield improvements.