The aim of the discussion paper is firstly to obtain an overview of the ownership structures in agricultural enterprises of the Novosibirsk (Russia) and Shitomir (Ukraine) oblasts and to compare them.. Another aim was to compare the results also with findings from other oblasts, in order to better understand the current privatization and restructuring processes, and to draw conclusions for the continuation of these processes. The investigation shows that the property rights of the shareholders to the collectively divided property are limited in both oblasts. There are some substantial differences between the largescale agricultural enterprises regarding concrete property rights. The sale of land and other property to other natural and legal entities by the shareholders is forbidden in all enterprises studied. But in all enterprises it is permitted to transfer land shares to those leaving in order to establish their own farm. In the Novosibirsk oblast, whereas 142 of the 181 members and managers of large-scale enterprises, and farmers, who were asked their opinion about the purchase and sale of land, gave a negative answer, only half of the farmers asked were against it. The report contains a multitude of further results regarding the ownership structures and the economic situation of large-scale farms, the owners of household plots, and the new farms. The discussion centering around the allotment of all property rights to the land among the shareholders, which involves the liberal reformers around president YEL'TSIN on the one hand, and the State Duma on the other, is studied. Based on GAJDAR, this is seen as the conflict between the abolition or the further existence of the "Asian mode of production" as described by MARX. Suggestions for a gradual development of the transformation process are submitted.