One hundred years ago Max Weber attributed the European miracle of rising prosperity, especially in the Protestant regions, to Protestant work ethics. The 500th Reformation day is a welcome cause to discuss his view in a wider context. First, other explanatory approaches refer to geological, biological, economic and sociological conditions for the economic rise of Western Europe. But the ideas of the reformators, especially of Martin Luther, shall be mentioned at least to the same extent: They shaped mentalities and institutions which give special moral weight to the individual person. Furthermore, in the long run his ideas favored the development of political and economic freedom, and so it gradually increased human capital too. In a nutshell, Luther proves to be an epochal personage whose beliefs actually matter for present-day business ethics too.