The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and the main risk factors is still high/pregnant in Germany, and there is no turn of the trend in sight. In October and November 1986 a 20 % accidentally-selected spot-check of a population group of inhabitants aged 41 to 45 years was investigated for risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in a hospital in Dessau. In this thesis/article the mean values and prevalences of the following features were evaluated, such as, high blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, atherosclerosis index according to Klimov, smoking, body weight, as well as, sport activities for both sexes; in women the taking of contraceptives was presented additionally. The above mentioned were presented in their differently changing combinations, men and women were evaluated separately. The male cohort in the Dessau study showed significantly more unfavourable mean values and prevalences in the most cardiovascular risk factors than the female group did, for example, in total cholesterol, atherosclerosis index (AS index), Body Mass Index, and smoking. In the male group with hypertension, hypercholesterinaemia, and mean/ strong overweight, more significantly-higher atherogeneous factors were shown than in comparison to the male total spot-check; in women those important linkings were rarely found. In men with hypertension the total cholesterol and Body Mass Index mean values were pregnantly higher than in the male total spot-check cohort; in women with hypertension only the Body Mass Index mean value was significantly augmented. The male group with hypercholesterinaemia showed a relevantly higher blood pressure, AS index and Body Mass Index mean values, and also a significantly lower HDL cholesterol mean value in comparison to the male total spot-check cohort. Women with hypercholesterinaemia had a significantly higher atherosclerosis indice mean value. In men with mean and strong overweight the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the total cholesterin value (only the mean values for medium overweight) and the AS index were importantly higher, as well as, the HDL cholesterol value was importantly lower than in the male total spot-check cohort. Women with strong overweight had pregnantly higher blood pressure and AS index mean values; women with medium overweight presented significantly higher total cholesterol and AS index mean values than the femal total spot-check group. Women of these weight groups also had a significantly lower HDL cholesterol mean value than the female total spot-check group.