When two deaf persons talk to each other, the aligned movements barely make any sense to a hearing person. It is of interest, what occurs in the brain of a deaf person, when he observes a sequence of movements by his opponent, which, for him, merges to a reasonable context. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is used both in clinical diagnostics and experimental science, was utilized as a sensitive method of measuring brain activities. I was primarily interested in questions about the processing of motion-relevant and movement-inducing features. For that purpose, it was necessary to develop a paradigm to examine the cortical processing of different stimuli. For the experiment, we presented images of different categories to deaf persons, hearing signers and control groups. To assess differences and similarities concerning the cortical processing of both sign language as well as spoken language, we determined brain areas which allowed us to perform reasonable and comparing analyses of the cortical processing of these two speaking modalities. Furthermore, we developed a paradigm to examine questions about changes of the cerebral presentation of the hands of deaf persons, provoked by their increased use of the hands during usage of sign language. Hence, the experiment consisted of an image paradigm and a motor paradigm. The first part of this dissertation briefly shows some facts about aetiology and epidemiology of deafness (chapter 2), followed by a detailed description of the brain areas of interest. Due to clarity in spite of the complexity of this study, the areas of interest are shown at large, which means, a theoretical overview of the present literature will be shown at first, before working out the hypotheses. In conclusion, the results of each region will be presented and discussed (chapters 3, 4, 5, 6). Two areas of exceptional interest will be discussed separately in the same manner as shown above (chapters 8 to 15). After the presentation of all the areas relevant for the image paradigm, the chapters 16 to 20 deal with the motor paradigm and show the basics, hyotheses, results and the discussion. Chapters 21 and 22 contain a concluding discussion of all results as well as a future prospect.