Ordered porous materials have attracted increasing interest particularly in nanotechnology. Examples are their use as templates for the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, and as highly selective membranes for separation applications. A simple and versatile method to prepare such porous structures characterized by lattice constants of a few tens of nanometers is based on self-assembly of diblock copolymers. Compared to electron beam lithography, this approach allows the patterning of large areas (up to several cm2) at considerably lower cost. Further benefits are the easy tailoring of the lattice constant by properly adjusting the molecular weight of the used block-copolymer and its self-healing behaviour. Thin films of PS-b-PMMA on various substrates consisting of cylindrical domains of the minor phase normal to the film plane were prepared by spin-coating and annealing under inert atmosphere. After exposing to UV light and rinsing in acetic acid, the PMMA can be removed. Both porous films and dots consisting of polystyrene were generated and used for lithography. Plasma etching was employed to transfer the pattern into the underlying substrates. Extended, highly ordered structures on different materials (Si, Si3N4, Al2O3) were obtained. The substrates thus patterned can be further processed to obtain extended, highly ordered porous materials with pores having high aspect ratios. An application discussed here is the fabrication of ordered gold nanoparticle arrays with high lateral density, which are stable at temperatures up to 600°C, by immobilising the nanoparticles within ordered mesoporous silicon. The thus obtained hybrid materials may be used for the growth of dense, ordered nanowire arrays, catalysis and sensor technology. To create highly ordered porous materials with pores having high aspect ratios, prepatterned alumina was manufactured by diblock copolymer lithography for subsequent electro-chemical etching.