The development of biocompatible materials for the permanent or temporary replacement of bone substance or for the stable fixation of endoprostheses has got two main aims. Firstly, a structural compatibility, i.e., the ability to fulfil demands in the biomechanical context, must be achieved. Secondly, a surface compatibility is necessary, meaning the compatibility between living organism and implant in the sense either of bioinert, bioactive and/or bioresorbable behaviour. This approach comprehends the mimicry of nanostructures, micromechanical mechanisms, and mechanical properties of compact bone. Therefore, the clarification of the property determining morphological parameters and micromechanical mechanisms of bone is eminent. The work results in a new definition of compact bone as a nanocomposite: Bone material consists of hybrid nanofibers of typical diameters of 75 to 100 nm that are mainly built of collagen and hydroxy apatite (HA). HA nanoparticles are irregular, exfoliated platelets of a typical size of 50x25x5 nm. The hybrid nanofibers control micromechanical processes of deformation and fracture that can be defined as craze-like mechanisms. It is shown that microstructured bioactive composite materials, although being able to induce or conduct growth of new bone, suffer from a lack of mechanical stability due to pores, particle agglomerates, and/or weakness of the particle/matrix interface as a result of water uptake. In this work, manufacturing routes for novel nanocomposites are proposed. The transition from micro- to nanostructured composites allows to create biomimetic materials that combine osteoinductive/osteoconductive behaviour and improved mechanical properties.