This thesis is aimed at describing the development and physicochemical characterization of membrane models containing ceramides. The major purpose is to prepare a membrane model of stratum corneum lipids, which will be appropriate for further studies on the skin permeation enhancers’ mode of action. In the first part of the thesis, two phytosphingosine-type ceramides, Cer[AP] and Cer[NP] were incorporated into the DMPC membrane. The prepared two-component systems should contribute to the elucidation of ceramides behaviour in biological membranes and of the role of ceramides in cell apoptosis. The following part of the thesis describes a four-component stratum corneum lipid model system analogous to the composition of the native stratum corneum lipid matrix. The phase behaviour of the system and the influence of cholesterol on the stratum corneum lipid membrane have been described. Finally, the application of the system and methods used for studying the effects of exogenous substances, e.g. permeation enhancers, has been evaluated. Within the thesis, three types of membrane models have been prepared, namely the multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles as well as oriented multilamellar lipid films. The prepared samples have been tested by several conventional techniques as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering. Newly, small angle neutron scattering on unilamellar vesicles and neutron diffraction on oriented lipid films have been applied.