Uremic patients with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) have a very poor prognosis. Between 2000 and 2006, we analyzed 116 dialysis patients with CLI. One year following diagnosis, 27% of patients survived without amputation, whereas 17% underwent a one or double-sided major amputation. The one-year mortality rate was 56%. Analysis of the clinical indicators predicting major amputation revealed that lower leg blood flow was the most significant (p The high mortality rate of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease is due to cardiac and cerebral causes. In our cohort of dialysis patients with CLI, the main reasons for mortality were cardiac factors and sepsis, originating from the ischemic limb. Being more than just an indicator, peripheral arterial occlusive disease is becoming a major reason for mortality. In those advanced states of the disease, selected atherogenic risk factors did not have any influence either on the amputation or on the mortality rates. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency, clinical intervention for atherosclerosis should be introduced at the early stages to prevent its progression.